Posted in  Understand Hoof Health  on  7 February, 2014 by  Debs Crosoer

A lot of focus is placed on getting perfectly balanced hooves. We all look at the outside of the hoof capsule and make our judgement as to whether the hoof has been properly balanced by whoever has trimmed or shod it.

But have we really considered what balance is, and what balance means to the whole functioning of the horse in the world out there?

Balance is a relative state between 2 (or more) things. It’s also static. That means there is no change. For this reason I prefer to think of equilibrium rather than balance.

Equilibrium is a dynamic balance. It means that the 2 things are relatively equal, but there is constant change and exchange between them. The simplest case with hooves would be when wear is in balance with growth. The hoof is always receiving wear and is always growing, but it appears to not change shape or size. That’s equilibrium.

Now – having said that, this article is about the importance of balance, so I’m not going to bang on about semantics. I am going to be discussing mostly static balance – because it’s vital to understand what that is, if you’re going to be able to decide just how important it is to you and your beastie.

Static Balance

Mostly, when someone is talking about the balance of a hoof, they are looking at whether the hoof capsule is in balance with the ground. If they’re getting technical, they’re looking at whether the pedal bone is in balance with the ground and there’s even joint spacing in the limb. You need x-rays for that.

(Well, technically you need x-rays to confirm that. A good hoof care practitioner should be able to get pretty close most of the time. However, without an x-ray you can’t confirm who’s right and who’s not.

So far, every time a hoof I’ve trimmed has been x-rayed for this purpose the vet has declared me spot on. If I haven’t had an x-ray, I can tell you I think I’m right. That’s not the same thing as knowing! And that goes for others too – ego is the dominant factor here. Just because I haven’t yet been wrong on the occasions it’s been checked, doesn’t mean I’ve been right every time.)

I always try to get the hoof capsule in balance with the pedal bone. It could be argued that this is semantics, but as I trim the hoof when it’s off the ground, I can’t balance it to the ground.

And here’s the thing about the ground – the ground your horse walks over is almost never flat. There’s hills, slopes, divots, stones, puddles… whatever! Not to mention the hoof is always growing, so from the moment the trim is over, the balance of the hoof is changing.

Balancing the hoof capsule to the ground suggests that the ground is the dominating factor for the hoof. I agree the ground is very significant – I mean seriously – without it… where would we be! (Answers on the back of a post card please – HA! I’m showing my age! Answers in the comments section below.) But I don’t think the ground is the dominating factor to the balance of the hoof.

By now I’m not going to shock anybody when I say, I think it’s the horse who’s the dominating factor! More specifically, the nervous system of the horse.

The nervous system is the boss! It is in contact with everything, everywhere within the body, whether you know about it or not. It handles about a gazillion (real number) messages, letting the brain know what needs to be done, to protect and manoeuvre the body. Most of the signals it sends never connect with the conscious brain, which is why we quite literally forget it’s there.

For this reason, I balance the hoof capsule to the pedal bone to the best of my ability. I believe this will allow the nervous system clearer information about what it needs to do. What was semantics becomes a very important mind set when approaching balance, and more specifically solving problems.

I don’t believe that hoof balance has a much of an effect on gait. Yes if the toe is long, the foot will leave the ground later, and if the toe is short, or cut off as it is in some trimming and shoeing styles the foot will leave the ground much earlier. Beyond that, I think it’s far more about the rest of the body.

The thing is, while the hoof is in flight, it’s not in contact with anything (hopefully). This means the hoof balance has nothing to do with how the limb is moving. There is an effect on how the hoof is placed during the landing phase, but most of what happens during the stride takes place in the swing phase (which is when the foot is in the air).

The horse’s legs act somewhat as a pendulum, and it’s the muscles, joints, ligaments, tendons and fascia that control how the leg and the rest of the body move.

We look at hoof capsule balance to give even joint spacing so as not to put undue stress on the limbs, but the truth is, as the ground is almost always unbalanced, it’s the nervous system that’s deciding how that stress is going to be transmitted to and through the limbs. It’s not decided by a mildly evolved monkey with a rasp (myself included).

You can’t statically balance one thing (a hoof) to something that’s constantly changing (the ground).

I used to always think that the way I thought was back to front compared to most people. Now I realise it’s inside out. Quite literally. I think from the internal structures to how they will interact with the outside world. Not from the external world and how I want the internal structures to interact with it.

In short. Hoof balance is important, but it’s not quite as important as the balance within the whole body, and it doesn’t have the power to do as much as we often think it does.

Yes a badly balanced hoof is going to cause a number of problems (imbalances) within the body. But unfortunately a correctly balanced hoof doesn’t often fix imbalances in the body. If it did, 1 trim would fix everything. Alas, it doesn’t.

What do you think?
How much do you think about hoof balance, body balance, the nervous system?
Do you think inside out or outside in?


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About the author

Debs is a practicing Equine Podiatrist with over 15 years experience, author, and educator.

She’s here to show you how to simplify your horse’s management painlessly so you feel in control and have a straightforward system that works for you.

When she’s not working you can find her playing with her own horses, watching geeky sci-fi or baking epic cakes.

  • Ha ha I completely agree. I was just telling a friend how I think from the inside out about the hoof, kind of like the pond and the pebble and the ripples. The ripples come out from the pedal/pebble. You wouldn’t attempt to change things from the outermost ripples back to the pebble. You must start at the source as best you can determine and work out. Balance out from the center to achieve equilibrium in each foot and ultimately the whole horse in motion will be balanced. My opinion, it is worth what it cost you. Thank you for all of your resources, knowledge, and willingness to share it. Yay!

  • Hi Debs, thoroughly appreciated you series on underrun heels. Then the balance article. How important is the heel to toe angle?, especially in an underrun heel. Thank you.

    • I tend not to trim to angles specifically. I focus on getting the structures healthy and the angles come right. When it comes to underrun heels it can be a challenge. You definitely don’t want a ground parallel pedal bone or negative palmer angle, which is often what you start with. Technically shortening the toe will relieve this problem, but you’re essentially removing a strong structure to try and make it balance with a weak collapsed structure. I’d use boots and pads to protect the hoof and the internal structures while stimulating some stronger structure at the heel. Simply put, when there isn’t enough hoof, trimming isn’t the answer!

  • You are gifted. I love your knowledge, your approach and your ability to share what you think in a creative, funny and obvious knowledgeable way. I absolutely love your articles and am gaining more answers to things I have pondered on long enough, an entirely new approach to my thinking and approach to trimming and a fresh way of looking at what I thought I understood and that of which I didn’t yet get! Yay, I love eureka moments!
    Look forward to more of your articles.
    Thank you!

  • Yes totally! I once had a fab conversation with a farrier where he was really wound up about heels being out of balance. When I asked him why he said ‘because if I shod that foot the horse would go lame’. I had to admit it simply wasn’t a criteria I’d considered – as you know – the horse wasn’t going to be shod and his heels were already too low, thus he was likely to go lame if they were trimmed short enough to be balanced, (and not shod).

    That said, the hoof grows even after a shoe is put on. So while that one swipe of the rasp is amazing on the day your there – and totally what you’re there to do, I give it a week or so before that imbalance is present again, and it’ll be there for 5 weeks more until you go back.

    Balance is important, and any trimmer should take enough pride in their work and have sufficient skill to create a balanced hoof capsule, but I just think we all need to be realisitic enough to know it’s going to change as soon as we’ve left the yard…

  • Good stuff as usual Debs! (am I your number one fan?) I don’t disagree with anything you’ve said and I agree that static hoof balance, per se is probably not as absolutely critical as many would have us believe… I have a little thought to add to that that relates particularly to medio-lateral balance and that is that it is more critical to a shod than a barefoot horse because once you put a (steel non flexible) shoe on it the foot looses the ability for the heels to move independently… Sure we need to get it as accurate a possible but people get obsessed with a half millimeter here or there (I’ve done it myself i.e. picked up a foot, thought “hmm..not bad but… {one quick swipe of the rasp} ..yeah, that’s better”) and forget that with the weight of the horse on it the heels of a bare foot can move up and down with a good centimetre differential..With a shoe they are locked in place (well almost!).

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